Cationic lipids can transport nucleic acids into the cell via endocytosis or cell membrane fusion. Fusion cation lipids transfer nucleic acids almost exclusively through cell membrane fusion. The fusion between the positively charged cationic lipids and the negatively charged cell surface effectively carries DNA directly across the plasma membrane. This process bypasses the endosome-lysosome route, resulting in degradation of the anionic liposome formulation. Cationic lipids are widely used in gene transfection because they are biodegradable due to the presence of endogenous enzymes after administration in vivo.
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