Coenzyme A (CoA) is an essential cofactor in various enzymatic reactions related to metabolism. It comprises of a nucleotide (adenosine monophosphate), a pantothenic acid molecule, and a mercaptoethylamine group. CoA is known to activate carboxylic acids, so it is involved in fatty acid oxidation, amino acid catabolism, and various other metabolic pathways. It plays a vital role in the Krebs cycle by mediating the transfer of acetyl and succinyl groups. CoA derivatives such as acetyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA serve as critical metabolites in generating energy and are therefore critical components of several important pathways in organisms. Acetyl-CoA, for instance, is the end product of the breakdown of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids, and serves as the starting substrate for the Krebs cycle. In summary, CoA and its derivatives play crucial roles in energy metabolism, and their dysfunction.
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