Gene expression and therapy is the introduction of foreign nucleic acids into target cells to modify or compensate for gene defects, so as to treat diseases such as cancer, diabetes, autoimmune diseases and infectious diseases. The rate of removal of exposed nucleic acid is faster, and the rate of non-specific biological distribution and cell internalization is low, which cannot achieve the expected therapeutic effect. Non-viral vectors have low immunity, can be used for multiple injections and mass production, and have great potential for clinical gene therapy. Common non-viral vector transgenic methods include electroporation, calcium phosphate precipitation, and liposomes. Cationic liposomes are positively charged at the surface and can wrap DNA molecules into them through electrostatic interactions with nucleic acid phospholipids, forming a DNA-lipid complex. They can also be absorbed by negatively charged cell membranes at the surface and then transferred into the cell by membrane fusion or cell endocytosis, and occasionally by direct osmosis. A small portion of DNA can be released from the envelope and enter the cytoplasm, where it can then be further transported to the nucleus for transcription and expression.
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