The term "intraocular injection" (also known as "intravitreal injection") refers to a medical treatment in which a medicine is injected directly into the vitreous humor, the gel-like fluid that fills the inside of the eye. Due to its many benefits, this drug delivery system has become more and more common in recent years, but it also has certain drawbacks.
Most frequently, retinal illnesses such age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and retinal vein occlusion are treated by intraocular injection. The treatment of uveitis and macular edema are two other disorders that occasionally require its use.
The use of nano-delivery technologies to increase the efficiency of intraocular injection has gained popularity in recent years. These nano-delivery system make more efficiently deliver medications to the retina.
The FDA-approved medication Lucentis, which is used to treat wet age-related macular degeneration, is one illustration of this. To increase its effectiveness, Lucentis is formed as a nanoparticle and administered intraocularly.
Figure 1. Intravitreal injection. (Honda M, et al.; 2013)
Another illustration is the clinical study of a medication delivery system based on nanoparticles to treat diabetic macular edema. This study indicated that the nanoparticle delivery system was secure and efficient, and that patients who received the treatment experienced a significant increase in their visual acuity.
Using nanoparticles for intraocular injection has a number of potential advantages. One of the key benefits is that by making medications more stable and soluble, they can increase their bioavailability and effectiveness. Better therapeutic outcomes and fewer adverse effects may result from this.
Nanoparticles can also aid in overcoming some of the biological obstacles that hinder intraocular injection's efficiency. For instance, they can increase the amount of medication that reaches the retina and improve drug penetration into the vitreous fluid.
The fact that intraocular injection enables targeted medicine administration to the afflicted area of the eye is one of its greatest benefits. This lowers the danger of systemic adverse effects because a considerably lower amount of the medication can be administered. Additionally, the medicine may function more rapidly and efficiently than prescriptions given orally because it is administered directly to the area of the disease.
The fact that intraocular injection is a reasonably quick and easy treatment that may be carried out in an outpatient environment is another benefit. The majority of the time, patients just require a local anesthetic, and the surgery itself only takes a few minutes.
Intraocular injection has some possible drawbacks despite its benefits. The most frequent adverse effect is a brief rise in ocular pressure, which can be uncomfortable and impair vision. After the injection, the ocular pressure may occasionally stay high for several days or even weeks.
Infection is a further possible consequence that may be significant and even sight-threatening. By employing adequate sanitary procedures during the treatment, this danger can be reduced.
The efficiency of intraocular injection may be constrained by a number of biological barriers present in the eye. The blood-retinal barrier, a protective layer of cells that divides the bloodstream from the retina, is one of the most significant. Drugs may be less effective if this barrier prevents them from reaching their intended target.
Furthermore, the vitreous fluid itself may prevent the delivery of certain medications. This is because the material can stop medications from diffusing through the eye because it is thick and gel-like.
CD Bioparticles is specialized in the development of drug delivery systems and customizing nanoparticles for drug delivery utilizing our core technologies. With our high-quality products and services, the efficacy of your drug delivery can be tremendously improved.
We offer custom synthesis of polymer microspheres and nanoparticles. Clients may select the material type, particle size, size distribution, color dye, fluorescent dye, and/or surface functional groups such as carboxyl or amine groups. We also encapsulate proteins, steroids, ligands, nucleic acids, and other drug molecules. Additionally, the surface coating of microspheres or nanoparticles with ligands, oligonucleotides, and other agents are available for clients to choose.