The kidney has varying physiological and biochemical characteristics compared with other organs that need to be taken into account while designing a drug delivery system. CD Bioparticles offers comprehensive design, synthesis, and evaluation services for kidney-targeted drug delivery systems tailored to the renal cell type and extracellular matrix components of interest to produce highly targeted and high-purity drug delivery systems for customers to achieve the goal of high-level drug concentration at the kidney site, along with minimal systemic exposure.
The kidneys play a crucial role in maintaining the body's fluid balance, electrolyte balance, and acid-base balance. They also help to remove waste products from the body and regulate blood pressure. Kidney-targeted drugs can help to improve kidney function and prevent or delay the onset of kidney disease. Developing kidney-targeted drugs is important for the treatment of important kidney diseases such as chronic kidney disease, glomerulonephritis, and diabetic nephropathy. These drugs specifically target the underlying mechanisms and pathways that lead to kidney damage or dysfunction. Kidney-targeted drugs can improve kidney function, slow the progression of kidney disease, and reduce the risk of complications such as cardiovascular disease. They can also reduce the need for dialysis or kidney transplant in end-stage kidney disease.
Kidney-specific drug delivery is generally aimed at hitting renal tubules, glomeruli or mesangial cells. The most promising drug delivery systems for kidney targeting are nanocarriers, drug carriers and prodrugs, such as liposomes, biodegradable macromolecules, and dendrimers.
The kidney has rich blood flow and is a target organ of many hormones and enzymes, suitable for targeted administration.
Here we present several developments in nanoparticles designed for kidney targeted delivery or approved by the FDA.
Table 1 Nanomedicines for kidney targeted drug deliver
|Glomeruli||PEG-modified liposome with desired size (110 nm) and octa-arginine (R8) coating||Asiatic acid|||
|Tubules||Mesoscale nanoparticles (MNPs) PLGA-PEG||p38α MAPK and p65 siRNA|||
|Tubules||Ceria nanoparticles modified with triphenylphosphine (TCeria NPs) and coated with ROS-responsive organic polymer||Atorvastatin|||
DNA-binding protein from
starved cells (Dps)
|Dinuclear manganese (Mn) cluster|||
Table 2 Nanomedicines approved by the FDA
|Name||Ingredient active||Carrier||Indication||Date of Approval|
|INFeD® (Sanofi Avertis)||Iron dextran (low MW)||Iron||Chronic kidney failure with iron deficiency||FDA (1957)|
|DexIron®/Dexferrum® (Sanofi Avertis)||Iron dextran (high MW)||Iron||Chronic kidney failure with iron deficiency||FDA (1957)|
|Ferrlecit® (Sanofi Avertis)||Sodium ferric gluconate||Sodium ferric||Chronic kidney failure with iron deficiency||FDA (1999)|
|Venofer® (Luitpold Pharmaceuticals)||Iron sucrose||Iron oxide||Chronic kidney failure with iron deficiency||FDA (2000)|
|Feraheme™ (AMAG pharmaceuticals)||
Ferumoxytol SPION with polyglucose
Ferumoxytol-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanopartilces
|Chronic kidney failure with iron deficiency||FDA (2009)|
|Renagel® (Sanofi)||Polymer-based Nanoparticles||sevelamer carbonate||Hyperphosphatemia caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD)||EMA (2001), FDA (2010)|
|Rapamune® (Wyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc. (a subsidiary of Pfizer Inc.))||Nanocrystal||sirolimus (rapamycin)||
Prevents rejection of kidney transplants
Figure 1 Parts of ligand types
1. He J, Chen H, Zhou W, Chen M, Yao Y, Zhang Z, Tan N: Kidney targeted delivery of asiatic acid using a FITC labeled renal tubular-targeting peptide modified PLGA-PEG system. Int J Pharm 2020, 584:119455.
2. Wang Y, Wu Q, Wang J, Li L, Sun X, Zhang Z, Zhang L: Co-delivery of p38alpha MAPK and p65 siRNA by novel liposomal glomerulus-targeting nano carriers for effective immunoglobulin a nephropathy treatment. J Control Release 2020, 320:457-468.
3. Yu H, Jin F, Liu D, Shu G, Wang X, Qi J, Sun M, Yang P, Jiang S, Ying X et al: ROS-responsive nano-drug delivery system combining mitochondria-targeting ceria nanoparticles with atorvastatin for acute kidney injury. Theranostics 2020, 10(5):2342-2357.
4. Uchida M, Maier B, Waghwani HK, Selivanovitch E, Pay SL, Avera J, Yun E, Sandoval RM, Molitoris BA, Zollman A et al: The archaeal Dps nanocage targets kidney proximal tubules via glomerular filtration. J Clin Invest 2019, 129(9):3941-3951.
Drug Delivery Nanoparticles Formulation
Bioparticles Analysis and Characterization
Bioactive Particles & Fillers Production
Functional Biomedical Coatings