CD Bioparticles offers custom services to stimuli-responsive controlled-release nanocarriers using advanced techniques. Our experienced scientists have created a comprehensive platform to design the light-responsive controlled-release nanocarriers in order to improve the capability of controlled-release drug delivery system.
Introduction to Light-responsive Controlled-release Nanocarriers
In pharmacology, stimuli-responsive controlled-release is an important field to improve the stability of drug and reducing side-effect. Light as an external stimulus for smart drug-delivery systems is advantageous among the most popular stimuli-responsive mechanisms, due to their non-invasive nature, high spatial resolution temporal control, convenience and ease of use. The light-actuated DDS usually works based on three main mechanisms: photochemical drug-delivery systems, photoisomerization drug-delivery systems, and photothermal drug-delivery systems. Photochemical drug-delivery systems use covalent bond cleavage regulated by light irradiation to facilitate the drug release. Photoisomerization means reversible conformational change of molecules could be induced by irradiation with UV and visible light to actuate drug delivery. Photothermal drug-delivery systems trigger drug-delivery systems by materials that generate heat upon photoexcitation to affect thermally sensitive components of drug-delivery systems.
Lights with different wavelengths possess different properties. So far, DDSs that respond to ultraviolet (UV) light, visible light, and near-infrared (NIR) light all have been developed and applied. The wavelength of ultraviolet (UV) light is in the range of 10–400 nm. It is well known that azobenzene, coumarin, spiropyran, pyrenylmethyl, o-nitrobenzyl and coumarin groups are UV light-responsive chromophores. UV light possesses high energy to trigger photochemical reactions. This UV-induced isomerization enables azobenzene to work as a “stirrer” and blocking agent. UV light can induce the photodimerization of coumarin and its derivatives. However, due to that the fact human tissues strongly absorb UV light, the penetration ability of UV light is relatively low (no larger than 10 mm). Besides, UV light possesses relatively high energy, which has been proven phototoxicity by destabilizing cells. Therefore, researchers have turned their attention to a safer light source. Near-infrared (NIR) light refers to the light with wavelength between 780-2526 nm. Compared to UV light, NIR light possesses advantages such as an absence of side effects and high penetration ability (on the centimeter scale). In addition, NIR light could be converted into thermal energy by noble metal nanoparticles, so the light-responsive controlled-release systems can cooperate with the thermo-responsive to control the drug release at special time and space on demand.
Key Features of Light-responsive Controlled-release Nanocarriers
Figure 1. Photo-responsive controlled release of drug. (Lie Chen, et al. Chem. Sci., 2017, 8: 2010–2016)
Light-responsive Controlled-release Nanocarriers Applications
Light-actuated on-demand drug-delivery systems are excellent to control the location and timing of drug administration. Recent studies have focused on its applications on delivering therapeutics for clinical applications ranging from pain management and chemotherapy to fighting infections and inflammation.
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Quotations and Ordering
1. Chendi D, et al. Recent advances in stimuli-responsive release function drug delivery systems for tumor treatment. Molecules. 2016, 21, 1715.
2. Ferris DP, Zhao YL, Khashab NM, et al. Light-operated mechanized nanoparticles. J Am Chem Soc. 2009, 131:1686e8.