Nanoparticles for Cancer Treatment


CD Bioparticles is a leading manufacturer and supplier for various drug delivery products, including metal nanostructures, biomacromolecules, synthetic polymer and biopolymers, and lipid system. All of them could be used in R&D and commercialization in a variety of application areas. We also have developed mature technology platforms for drug delivery, such as inorganic nanomaterials, biomacromolecules, polymeric and lipid system. In addition, we can offer a wide range of custom services including drug delivery nanoparticles formulation, bioparticles analysis and characterization, and drug targeting strategy customization. We are dedicated to providing the most comprehensive list of products and fit-for-purpose custom analysis services to academia as well as industrial researchers and assay developers all around the world.

For the last decade, researchers have paid significant interest to nanoparticles (NPs) due to their ability to overcome limitations in traditional chemotherapy of cancer treatment in drug delivery. Moreover, NPs can be custom synthesized to target specific cancer tissues and carry both drugs and imaging probes at the same time. The first clinical trial of NPs for cancer treatment drug delivery can be dated back to the middle 1980s while the first therapeutic NPs entered the pharmaceutical market were in 1995. From then on, numerous new NPs for cancer drug delivery have been approved or developed because of their obvious advantages including enhancing the solubility of hydrophobic drugs, prolonging circulation time, minimizing nonspecific uptake, reducing off-target and side effects, improving intracellular penetration, and ability of specific cancer targeting.

Nanoparticles in Cancer Treatment

As the third leading cause of mortality all over the world, cancer is a disease due to abnormal cell growth. In 2015, it caused 8,800,000 deaths. To kill the cancer cells, we currently use chemotherapeutic drugs in chemo or radiation therapy. However, these treatments usually bring several side effects (e.g. damaging the surrounding healthy tissues), and may delay in diagnosis or have a high incidence of relapse, which lowers the survival rates. Using a nanoparticle-based drug delivery approach to treat cancer cells can overcome the limitations of conventional treatment methodologies by providing simultaneous diagnosis and treatment. Although gold, silver, iron, copper, cobalt, platinum, etc. have been applied in NPs and nanomaterials, gold NPs have been the No. 1 choice for researchers in the biological and pharmaceutical field because of their unique optical and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) properties. Moreover, the ability to utilize NP features shows many possibilities to apply these NPs in drug delivery of cancer treatment as image contrast agents and for diagnostic purposes.

The application of targeted NPs to deliver chemotherapeutic agents in cancer treatment possesses many advantages including improving drug/gene delivery and overcoming many disadvantages associated with traditional chemotherapy:

  • Through either passive targeting or active targeting, NPs can enhance the intracellular concentration of drugs/genes in cancer cells (Figure 1) and avoid toxicity in normal cells at the same time.

Figure 1. Tumor growth of human prostate cancer tumors in mice. C, control; GNS, gold nanoshells; L, laser; S, sham treated. (Jain, S., Hirst, D. G., & O’Sullivan, J. M. (2012). Gold nanoparticles as novel agents for cancer therapy. The British Journal of Radiology, 85(1010), 101–113)

  • The targeted NPs can be custom synthesized as a pH-sensitive or temperature-sensitive carrier. The pH-sensitive drug delivery system is ideal for delivering and releasing drugs within the more acidic microenvironment of the cancer cells (Figure 2), while the temperature-sensitive system combined with chemotherapy and hyperthermia can carry and release drugs to tumor region having temperature changes.

Figure 2. Cumulative drug release graph of free DOX at pH 5.3 and pH 7.4 and AuNP/Polymer-DOX bioconjugates at pH 5.3 and pH 7.4 for 72 h at 37 °C. DOX: doxorubicin. (Yilmaz, G., et al. (2018). pH responsive glycopolymer nanoparticles for targeted delivery of anti-cancer drugs. Molecular Systems Design & Engineering, 3(1), 150–158)

  • The targeted NPs can be modified or functionalized so that their toxicity is reduced. For example, modifying NPs surface chemistry could result in lower toxicity and immunotoxicity (Figure 3).

Figure 3. In vitro cytotoxicity of bare silver nanoparticles and surface modified silver nanoparticles against PBMCs. n = 6; values are expressed as mean ± SEM. Asterisk Indicates the significant difference as compared to control group. (Das, B., et al. (2017). Surface modification minimizes the toxicity of silver nanoparticles: an in vitro and in vivo study. JBIC Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, 22(6), 893–918)

Like other new technologies, targeted NPs for cancer treatment face many challenges too. NPs may change the stability, solubility, and pharmacokinetic properties of the carried drugs and other aspects such as the shelf life, aggregation, leakage, and toxicity of materials used to make nanoparticles limit their use too. For example, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is with low toxicity and will degrade quickly which means there is not enough time to circulate in tissues for sustained drug delivery. On the other hand, although carbon nanotubes and quantum dots are durable and can exist in the patient’s body for weeks, months or even longer, their potentially toxic limits their use for repeated treatments. As for silica NPs, researchers developed them for drug delivery to treat cancer but also worry about the potential risks for introducing new materials in the human body. In addition to making efforts to develop new material and select appropriate materials for each specific treatment, there are other factors that should be considered to design better targeted NPs. These factors are the particle size, shape, sedimentation, drug encapsulation efficacy, drug release profiles, distribution in the body, circulation, and cost. For example, the clearance rate of very small NPs may be high and most of these NPs may end up in patient’s liver and spleen, leading to the impractical and ineffective use of the targeted NPs. However, larger NPs are too big to go through small capillaries for drug delivery. As a result, it is vital to select the right materials and particle size of targeted NPs for cancer treatment.

Our Featured Services

CD Bioparticles is specialized in the development of drug delivery systems and customizing nanocarriers for drug delivery utilizing our core technologies. With our high-quality products and services, the efficacy of your drug delivery can be tremendously improved.

We offer custom synthesis of polymer microspheres and nanoparticles for cancer treatment. Clients may select the material type, particle size, size distribution, color dye, fluorescent dye, and/or surface functional groups such as carboxyl or amine groups. We enable you to make wise decisions on all components of the antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) structure so that the optimal candidate is identified for your target of interest in terms of stability, off-target toxicity, and efficacy. Besides, methodologies developed to produce the ADC are simple, scalable and reproducible and ultimately suitable for large-scale manufacture.

References:
1. Singh, P., Pandit, S., Mokkapati, V. R. S. S., Garg, A., Ravikumar, V., & Mijakovic, I. (2018). Gold Nanoparticles in Diagnostics and Therapeutics for Human Cancer. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19(7), 1979. 
2. Nguyen KT (2011) Targeted Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy: Promises and Challenges. J Nanomedic Nanotechnol, 2, 103e.  

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