Nanoparticles for Therapeutic Cargos —Vaccines


In recent years, nanotechnology has created its space in vaccinology. Nanocarriers are suitable delivery vehicles for vaccines due to the enhancement of antigen uptake via prevention of vaccine degradation in the biological environment and the intrinsic immune-stimulatory properties of the materials. What’s more, nanoparticles have been shown capable of not only desirable vaccine release, but can also be targeted to immune cells of interest, loaded with immunostimulatory substances termed adjuvants, or even induce desirable immune activating effects on their own. CD Bioparticles is experienced in providing vaccine carriers such as polymeric nanoparticles, nanocapsules, liposomes, micelles, dendrimers, nanotubes for your need.

Vaccines Introduction

Vaccines are designed immunogenic antigens used to intentionally trigger the memory component of the immune system by stimulating humoral immunity via the production of antibodies for long term protection against various diseases. These agents resemble a disease-causing microorganism and stimulate the body’s immune system to recognize the agent as foreign, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily challenge these microorganisms upon subsequent encounters. Vaccination is the most effective means of controlling infectious disease-related morbidity and mortality nowadays.

Nanocarrier based payload cargos for vaccines are growing technologies due to their intrinsic immune-stimulatory properties, ability to co-entrap antigen adjuvants such as toll-like receptor (TLR) and enhancement of the antigen uptake by cells, e.g., by professional antigen presenting cell (APC) manipulation. They are widely used to augment immunogenicity of antigens, to protect vaccines from degradation in the physiological environment, to improve the efficacy of vaccines, and to target specific sites preventing unwanted accumulation. Tailored nanocarriers can safely cargo vaccines to a specific site. Attempts are being made to deliver vaccines through carriers as they control the spatial and temporal presentation of antigens to the immune system thus leading to their sustained release and targeting. Hence, lower doses of weak immunogens can be effectively directed to stimulate immune responses and eliminate the need for the administration of prime and booster doses as a part of conventional vaccination regimen.

Advantages of nanocarrier based vaccine delivery system possess the following significant advantages:

  • Because of the small size owned by nanoparticles, they display remarkable properties like high surface area to volume ratio and high diffusion rate. And these carriers are better taken up by the antigen presenting cells thereby facilitating the delivery of antigen to the antigen presenting cells;
  • Localized drug delivery is possible with targeted nanocarriers;
  • Increased bioavailability with nanocarrier dependent therapeutics;
  • Apart from carriers, they also work as an adjuvant to provoke the immune response and thus produce lager response as compared with conventional vaccines;
  • Can maximize drug concentration at mucosal surfaces without causing harm to the body.

Of course, not all materials can be suitable vaccine carriers. The components used for formulating nanocarriers should be nonreactive and preferably biocompatible. The release of the vaccines from nanocarriers follows any of the mechanisms, alone or in combination, including erosion, degradation, diffusion or swelling of the matrix. Nanocarrier should provide optimum encapsulation, enough stability and necessary permeability to the antigen/drug. As a result, carriers such as polymeric nanoparticles, nanocapsules, liposomes, bilosomes, micelles, dendrimers and nanotubes which are now being investigated and developed as vaccine delivery carriers.

Figure 1. Schematic representation of different vaccine nanocarriers. (Smith, J. D., Morton, L. D., Ulery, B. D. Current opinion in biotechnology, 2015, 34, 217-224.)

Our Featured Services

CD Bioparticles is specialized in the development of drug delivery systems and customizing nanoparticles for vaccine delivery utilizing our core technologies. With our high-quality products and services, the efficacy of your vaccine delivery can be tremendously improved.

We can help you choose appropriate vaccines and carrier materials for your special needs. And we are proficient in designing and synthesizing polymeric nanoparticles, nanocapsules, liposomes, micelles, dendrimers, nanotubes and other nanocarriers for vaccine delivery. Carrier properties such as molecular weight, solubility, and hydrophobicity could be designed and engineered at your will; as well as the addition of desired chemical groups or targeting moieties for further functionalization.

References:
1. Gregory, A. E., Williamson, D., Titball, R. Vaccine delivery using nanoparticles. Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 2013, 3, 13.
2. Wen, R., Umeano, A., Francis, L., Sharma, N., Tundup, S., Dhar, S. Mitochondrion: a promising target for nanoparticle-based vaccine delivery systems. Vaccines, 2016, 4(2), 18.
3. Singh, M., Chakrapani, A., O’Hagan, D. Nanoparticles and microparticles as vaccine-delivery systems. Expert review of vaccines, 2007, 6(5), 797-808.
4. Saroja, C. H., Lakshmi, P. K., Bhaskaran, S. Recent trends in vaccine delivery systems: a review. International journal of pharmaceutical investigation, 2011, 1(2), 64.

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