Plant Derived Extracellular Vesicles

CD Bioparticles can provide you with high purity plant derived extracellular vesicles (PDEVs) with unique advantages, especially high stability, intrinsic bioactivity and easy absorption.

Introduction of Plant Derived Extracellular Vesicles

The past few years have witnessed a significant increase in research related to plant-derived extracellular vesicles (PDEVs) in biological and medical applications. Using biochemical technologies, multiple independent groups have demonstrated the important roles of PDEVs as potential mediators involved in cell-cell communication and the exchange of bio-information between species.

Introduction of Plant Derived Extracellular Vesicles

The Specific Features of PDEVs

Nanometer sized membrane-enclosed EVs have been extracted from many plant species, such as Dendropanax morbifera, grapefruit, and dried plant-derived materials. These EVs are effectively uptaken by most host organs, affecting their physiological and pathological processes. Nowadays, several studies have pointed out the important roles of plant-derived extracellular vesicles (PDEVs) in cell-cell communication, the exchange of bio-information between different cells, and maintaining proper tissue homeostasis and organism integrity. The biochemical and pharmacological studies have demonstrated the heterogeneity of PDEVs in terms of their origin, size, and content1.

PDEVs have the following features:

  • Almost all kinds of edible fruits and vegetables can release
  • Large production, and can be increased by food additives
  • No significant side-effects
  • Crossing the different biological barriers
  • Carrying cargoes, and easily absorbed by the targeted recipient cells
  • Good stability in microenvironment
  • Widely applied in different aspects of the skin aesthetics

The Applications of PDEVs

Table 1. Summary of PDEVs in multiple pathological conditions1

Plant species Molecular mechanism Biological function Diseases
Kaempferia parviflora Suppression of cell viability Gastric cancer
Tea flowers/leaves Stimulating ROS generation Anti-proliferation, antimigration Breast cancer
Lemon Improving ROS concentration Induction of cell apoptosis Gastric cancer
Bitter melon Sensitizing effect of 5-fluorouracil Oral squamous cell carcinoma
Petasites japonicus Activating MAPK and NF-κB signaling Promoting maturation of dendritic cells, activating Th1/cytotoxic T cells SARS-CoV-2 infection
Pueraria lobata Facilitating M2 macrophage polarization Anti-inflammatory Inflammatory-related diseases
Oat Decreasing secretion of proinflammatory cytokines Prevention of ethanol-induced brain damage Brain damage
Lemon Inhibiting ERK/NF-κB signaling Anti-inflammatory effects Inflammatory damage
Carrot Up-regulating antioxidative molecules Alleviating oxidative stress Myocardial infarction
Aloe saponaria Promoting tube formation and angiogenesis Skin wound
Ginseng Delivery of plant microRNAs into BMSCs Facilitating BMSC neural differentiation and neural restoration Skin wound
Ginseng Altering polarization of M2 macrophages Improving anti-tumor immune response Melanoma
Dendropanax morbifera Impairing tyrosinase-related signaling Reducing melanin concentration and increased whitening effect Melanoma

Our PDEVs Featured Services:

CD Bioparticles excels in developing drug delivery systems and customizing exosomes for effective drug delivery. We offer a variety of services, including the extraction, separation, and purification of PDEVs, as well as drug loading.

  • Isolation and purification: We can offer the isolation and purification service for several kind of PDEVs, including but not limited to: high-purity aloe vera-derived extracellular vesicles, cucumber-derived extracellular vesicles, pomegranate-derived extracellular vesicles, grapefruit-derived extracellular vesicles, lemon-derived extracellular vesicles, bitter melon-derived extracellular vesicles, ginger-derived extracellular vesicles, onion-derived extracellular vesicles, garlic-derived extracellular vesicles and milk-derived extracellular vesicles.
  • Drug Loading: For load long and short chains, coding, noncoding RNA (e.g., mRNA, miRNA, and lncRNA), lipids, proteins, and active chemotherapy drugs, we can provide professional and efficient drug loading services, including chemical transfection, electroporation, ultrasound, co-incubation, extrusion, the freeze–thaw cycle, auxiliary saponins, low-osmosis dialysis, and pH gradients.
  • Analysis and characterization: size analysis (NTA, TEM), biochemical analysis, (Exoview, MACSPlex…), omic analysis, dosages (proteins, DNA, RNA, Lipids…), surface-markers…
  • In vitro and in vivo evaluations: Toxicity, drug efficacy, gene expression, immunogenicity, metabolic level, drug aggregation, organ distribution, drug release ability, localization studies, etc.
  • Services in skin aesthetics**: We will strive to provide you with plant extracellular vesicle products that meet your usage conditions and requirements. In addition to offering high-purity and high-quality extracellular vesicle products, we can also provide research and development services for extracellular vesicles in the field of medical aesthetics. We collaborate with the medical community to conduct trials to verify the safety and efficacy of extracellular vesicle products in improving skin health, combating aging, and other medical aesthetic applications.

Quotations and Ordering

Quotations and Ordering


  1. Xu, Z., et al.;Plant-derived extracellular vesicles (PDEVs) in nanomedicine for human disease and therapeutic modalities. J Nanobiotechnol. 21, 114 (2023).
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