Muscles-Targeted Drug Delivery Systems

CD Bioparticles provides an advanced nanotechnology platforms that can be leveraged to offer vehicle design and development services for a wide range of vehicle types. These innovative solutions can target muscle groups and be customized to meet low toxicity bone targeting requirements for drug systems. CD Bioparticles possesses the expertise to provide design, synthesis, modifications, characterization, and active stability evaluation for high-potential carriers that target bone and muscle, including but not limited to liposomes, polymers, viral vectors and exosomes. We provide professional and reliable support for the targeted drug development of your skeletal muscles.

Introduction to Muscles-Targeted Drug Delivery Systems

Skeletal muscles, as one of the largest organs in the body, are characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing. Skeletal muscle architecture is characterized by a very particular and well-described arrangement of muscle fibers, also called myofibers. Groups of myofibers form the fascicles, and bundles of fascicles make up the whole muscle tissue (Figure 1). Muscle weakness, ageing skeletal muscle, muscle dystrophy polymyositis, and mitochondrial myopathy are affecting people's daily life. Drug targeting into skeletal muscles is commonly achieved by local injection of drugs to muscular tissue due to direct accessibility through the skin. Few passive and active targeting strategies have been developed. In recent years, novel nano-carriers delivery systems offer new possibilities for treating systemic diseases.

Structure of muscleFigure 1. Structure of muscle[1]

The Specific Features of Muscles-targeted Drug Delivery Systems:

The targeting of drugs to skeletal muscle is an emerging area of research. Driven by the need for new therapies to treat a range of muscle-associated diseases, these strategies aim to provide improved drug exposure at the site of action in skeletal muscle with reduced concentration in other tissues where unwanted side effects could occur[2].

  • Targeting: Precisely delivering drugs to skeletal muscle cells, increasing the effective drug dosage and reducing drug concentration in other tissues. Promising transporters include ENT2 and OCTN2 and their ligands, inosine and L-carnitine, respectively. Endogenous receptors, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), can also be explored as targeting moieties.
  • High drug stability: Nanoparticles protect drugs from degradation and metabolism, increasing drug stability and bioavailability.
  • Controlled release: Drugs can be slowly released in skeletal muscle according to need, improving drug efficacy and duration of action.
  • Low toxicity: Nanotechnology can be used to wrap drugs that require high dosages, reducing toxicity and adverse reactions while concurrently decreasing drug concentration in other tissues.

Nanoparticle systems are flexible in preparation and are suitable for chemical drugs, biological drugs, and gene therapy.

The Applications of Muscles-targeted Drug Delivery Systems:

Musculoskeletal disorders such as muscle weakness, ageing skeletal muscle, muscle dystrophy polymyositis, and mitochondrial myopathy can be treated more effectively through muscle-targeted drug delivery systems. Zanaflex® has been FDA-approved for this purpose and can increase the bioavailability of muscle relaxants while reducing the dosage required. Nanoparticle technology has also shown promise in the treatment of skeletal muscle diseases, with researchers exploring new methods such as exosome-anchored peptide therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, using red blood cell-derived extracellular vesicles for cancer cachexia, and employing AAV virus to deliver gene therapy specifically to skeletal muscle-related genes. These advancements in nanotechnology offer unprecedented advantages for improving treatment outcomes related to musculoskeletal disorders.

Our Featured Services:

  • Design and synthesis: Provide you with the most scientific and reliable muscles targeting strategies, a variety of vehicles and services including nano-based delivery systems such as liposomes, exosomes, polymers and viral vectors for muscles treatment.
  • Drug modifications: Ligands conjugation services are available from CD Bioparticles, including small molecules, peptides, antibodies, polymer and aptamers.
  • Analysis and characterization: Size, surface properties, encapsulation efficiency, gene expression efficiency, purity, etc.
  • Testing in vitro and in vivo: Toxicity, drug efficacy, immunogenicity, metabolic level, drug aggregation, localization studies, etc.

Quotations and Ordering

Quotations and Ordering


  1. Fernandez-Costa JM, et al.; Bioengineered in vitro skeletal muscles as new tools for muscular dystrophies preclinical studies. J Tissue Eng. 2021,12:2041731420981339.
  2. Alsaggar M, Liu D, Organ-based drug delivery. J Drug Target. 2018, 26(5-6):385-397.
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