Polysaccharides such as starch, arabinogalactan, β-D-glucan, sodium dolomitate, curdlan, galactan, and gum arabic play an important role in drug delivery. These polysaccharides possess rich structural and functional properties, making them ideal drug carriers or controlled-release materials. Due to their tunable physical and chemical properties, these polysaccharides can effectively encapsulate drugs, improve drug stability, and achieve precise control of drug release. In addition, they have good biocompatibility and biodegradability, which helps reduce adverse reactions caused by drugs. In terms of nanodrug delivery, microsphere systems and colloidal delivery, the application of these polysaccharides has brought a wealth of choices and innovations to the field of drug delivery.